CBD Benefits to the Nervous System, Immune System, GT Tract

While more studies need to be done on how CBD affects our pets, preliminary research suggests CBD promotes balance in the endocannabinoid system, which is linked to a range of vital processes in the body including the nervous system, immune system, the GI tract and more.*

Many pet owners have shared anecdotal stories that MaxDaddy products have helped reduce anxiety and calm their dog, improve mobility, ease pain and inflammation, improve appetite and more.* These anecdotal stories are helpful, but its important to keep in mind that we cannot make these claims about our products until more research and clinical studies on CBD and pets are conducted on all of the conditions mentioned above.

Conditions that CBD May Positively Impact

Below is a list of conditions that CBD may positively impact based on preliminary research studies and pet owner claims.

Pain/Arthritis

Arthritis can make it painful for animals to move freely and live normal lives. CBD can reduce inflammation and swelling in joints. A clinical trial with 22 dogs with confirmed osteoarthritis randomly received two treatments for four weeks using CBD oil and placebo oil. The trial found a 2 mg/kg of CBD oil dose given twice per day helped increase the dogs’ comfort and activity.

Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacyof Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs — July 2018

The objectives of this study were to determine basic oral pharmacokinetics, and assess safety and analgesic efficacy of a cannabidiol (CBD) based oil in dogs with osteoarthritis (OA).

Results: Pharmacokinetics revealed an elimination half-life of 4.2 h at both doses and no observable side effects. Clinically, canine brief pain inventory and Hudson activity scores showed a significant decrease in pain and increase in activity (p < 0.01) with CBD oil. Veterinary assessment showed decreased pain during CBD treatment (p < 0.02). No side effects were reported by owners, however, serum chemistry showed an increase in alkaline phosphatase during CBD treatment (p < 0.01).

Clinical significance: This pharmacokinetic and clinical study suggests that 2 mg/kg of CBD twice daily can help increase comfort and activity in dogs with OA.

Read the full study.

Seizures

A study in May 2019 found that 89 percent of dogs with epilepsy had reduced incidents of seizures. The study found that dogs with a higher concentration of CBD in their blood had a more significant reduction in seizures.

CBD clinical trial results on seizure frequency in dogs 'encouraging' — May 2019

Promising and exciting. Those are the words used by Dr. Stephanie McGrath, a neurologist at Colorado State University's James L. Voss Veterinary Teaching Hospital, to describe findings from a pilot study to assess the use of cannabidiol, or CBD, for dogs with epilepsy.

Source: Colorado State University

Summary: Scientists have found in a small study that 89 percent of dogs who received CBD in the clinical trial had a reduction in the frequency of seizures. Nine dogs were treated with CBD, while seven in a control group were treated with a placebo.

Read the full article on Science Daily.

Anxiety

An article in Consumer Reports in April 2019 sites a veterinarian in Michigan who credits CBD for helping to keep his dog calm during fireworks shows.

Should You Try CBD for Your Pet? — April 2019

People are using this cannabis compound to ease animal ailments with or without guidance from veterinarians.

Source: Consumer Reports

Summary: Jeffrey Powers D.V.M., who is a veterinarian practicing in Michigan and is also vice chairman of the American Veterinary Medical Association’s Council on Biologic and Therapeutic Agents, credits CBD for easing his dog’s distress.

Read the full article on Consumer Reports.

Allergies and Skin Conditions

Pets with allergies may scratch incessantly leading to open sores and the possibility of infection. Pet owners that have pets with allergies use CBD products because they believe it relieves itchy skin. An immunohistochemical study which supported the pet owners anecdotal stories found CBD helped provide protection against inflammatory allergic disorders.

Anti-inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol, a Nonpsychotropic Cannabinoid, in Experimental Allergic Contact Dermatitis — June 2018

This study showed CBD’s anti-inflammatory properties can be helpful in cases involving contact dermatitis by activating CB2 receptors in the skin’s ECS.

Abstract: Phytocannabinoids modulate inflammatory responses by regulating the production of cytokines in several experimental models of inflammation. Cannabinoid type-2 (CB2) receptor activation was shown to reduce the production of the monocyte chemotactic protein-2 (MCP-2) chemokine in polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly-(I:C)]–stimulated human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells, an in vitro model of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). We investigated if nonpsychotropic cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol (CBD), produced similar effects in this experimental model of ACD. HaCaT cells were stimulated with poly-(I:C), and the release of chemokines and cytokines was measured in the presence of CBD or other phytocannabinoids (such as cannabidiol acid, cannabidivarin, cannabidivarinic acid, cannabichromene, cannabigerol, cannabigerolic acid, cannabigevarin, tetrahydrocannabivarin, and tetrahydrocannabivarinic acid) and antagonists of CB1, CB2, or transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) receptors. HaCaT cell viability following phytocannabinoid treatment was also measured. The cellular levels of endocannabinoids [anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonoylglycerol] and related molecules (palmitoylethanolamide, oleoylethanolamide) were quantified in poly-(I:C)–stimulated HaCaT cells treated with CBD. We show that in poly-(I:C)–stimulated HaCaT cells, CBD elevates the levels of AEA and dose-dependently inhibits poly-(I:C)–induced release of MCP-2, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α in a manner reversed by CB2 and TRPV1 antagonists 6-iodopravadoline (AM630) and 5′-iodio-resiniferatoxin (I-RTX), respectively, with no cytotoxic effect. This is the first demonstration of the anti-inflammatory properties of CBD in an experimental model of ACD.

Read the full study.

Digestive Issues

CBD can help relieve digestive issues in animals. Your vet is your best source to determine the root cause of the issue and treat symptoms like vomiting and nausea. CBD can help vomiting and nausea and stimulate your pet’s appetite.

Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT(1A) somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus. — April 2012

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the hypothesis that activation of somatodendritic 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) produces the anti-emetic/anti-nausea effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a primary non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in cannabis.

Results: CBD suppressed nicotine-, lithium chloride (LiCl)- and cisplatin (20 mg·kg(-1) , but not 40 mg·kg(-1) )-induced vomiting in the S. murinus and LiCl-induced conditioned gaping in rats. Anti-emetic and anti-nausea-like effects of CBD were suppressed by WAY100135 and the latter by WAY100635. When administered to the DRN: (i) WAY100635 reversed anti-nausea-like effects of systemic CBD, and (ii) CBD suppressed nausea-like effects, an effect that was reversed by systemic WAY100635. CBD also displayed significant potency (in a bell-shaped dose-response curve) at enhancing the ability of 8-OH-DPAT to stimulate [(35) S]GTPγS binding to rat brainstem membranes in vitro. Systemically administered CBD and 8-OH-DPAT synergistically suppressed LiCl-induced conditioned gaping.

Read the full study.

Cannabinoids and appetite: food craving and food pleasure. — April 2009

This abstract outlines some of the findings of the past decade that link endocannabinoid function appetite control, and the possible clinical applications of that knowledge.

Abstract: The ability of Cannabis sativa to promote eating has been documented for many centuries, with the drug reported by its users to promote strong cravings for, and an intensification of the sensory and hedonic properties of food. These effects are now known to result from the actions of cannabinoid molecules at specific cannabinoid receptor sites within the brain, and to reflect the physiological role of their natural ligands, the endocannabinoids, in the control of appetite. Recent developments in the biochemistry and pharmacology of endocannabinoid systems have generated convincing evidence from animal models for a normal role of endocannabinoids in the control of eating motivation. The availability of specific cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists raises the possibility of improved therapies for disorders of eating and body weight: not only in the suppression of appetite to counter our susceptibility to the over-consumption of highly pleasurable and energy-dense foods; but also in the treatment of conditions that involve reduced appetite and weight loss.

Read the abstract.

Cannabis and Cannabinoids (PDQ®)–Health Professional Version — Updated January 2020

This cancer information summary provides an overview of the use of Cannabis and its components as a treatment for people with cancer-related symptoms caused by the disease itself or its treatment.

Summary of the Evidence for Cannabis and Cannabinoids

Cannabinoids

Several controlled clinical trials have been performed, and meta-analyses of these support a beneficial effect of cannabinoids (dronabinol and nabilone) on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (N/V) compared with placebo. Both dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the prevention or treatment of chemotherapy-induced N/V in cancer patients but not for other symptom management.

Cannabis

  • There have been ten clinical trials on the use of inhaled Cannabis in cancer patients that can be divided into two groups. In one group, four small studies assessed antiemetic activity but each explored a different patient population and chemotherapy regimen. One study demonstrated no effect, the second study showed a positive effect versus placebo, the report of the third study did not provide enough information to characterize the overall outcome as positive or neutral. Consequently, there are insufficient data to provide an overall level of evidence assessment for the use of Cannabis for chemotherapy-induced N/V. Apparently, there are no published controlled clinical trials on the use of inhaled Cannabis for other cancer-related or cancer treatment–related symptoms.
  • An increasing number of trials are evaluating the oromucosal administration of Cannabis plant extract with fixed concentrations of cannabinoid components, with national drug regulatory agencies in Canada and in some European countries that issue approval for cancer pain.
  • At present, there is insufficient evidence to recommend inhaling Cannabis as a treatment for cancer-related symptoms or cancer treatment–related symptoms or cancer treatment-related side effects; however, additional research is needed.

Read the full study.

Heart Disease/Heart Failure

CBD can help increase blood flow and relieve the side effects of prescription medications. Also, the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant qualities of CBD can protect blood vessels from being damaged.

Is the cardiovascular system a therapeutic target for cannabidiol? — February 2013

This article examines the evidence and establishes whether or not the cardiovascular system is a potential target for CBD.

Abstract: Cannabidiol (CBD) has beneficial effects in disorders as wide ranging as diabetes, Huntington’s disease, cancer and colitis. Accumulating evidence now also suggests that CBD is beneficial in the cardiovascular system. CBD has direct actions on isolated arteries, causing both acute and time-dependent vasorelaxation. In vitro incubation with CBD enhances the vasorelaxant responses in animal models of impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. CBD protects against the vascular damage caused by a high glucose environment, inflammation or the induction of type 2 diabetes in animal models and reduces the vascular hyperpermeability associated with such environments. A common theme throughout these studies is the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effect of CBD. In the heart, in vivo CBD treatment protects against ischaemia-reperfusion damage and against cardiomyopathy associated with diabetes. Similarly, in a different model of ischaemia-reperfusion, CBD has been shown to reduce infarct size and increase blood flow in animal models of stroke, sensitive to 5HT(1A) receptor antagonism. Although acute or chronic CBD treatment seems to have little effect on haemodynamics, CBD reduces the cardiovascular response to models of stress, applied either systemically or intracranially, inhibited by a 5HT(1A) receptor antagonist. In blood, CBD influences the survival and death of white blood cells, white blood cell migration and platelet aggregation. Taken together, these preclinical data appear to support a positive role for CBD treatment in the heart, and in peripheral and cerebral vasculature. However, further work is required to strengthen this hypothesis, establish mechanisms of action and whether similar responses to CBD would be observed in humans.

Read the article.

* These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. MaxDaddy products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

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